താൾ:13E3287.pdf/31

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formal or informal falls into fixed literary types."17 He also states that,
'speech is characterised more by formulas. A formula is a short form of a
literary type. It is often used as an introduction or as a mark of identifica-
tion for a more elaborate literary type...Thus a literary type is indicated by
the typical characteristics of an individual linguistic unit, whereas a
formula is a set of connecting words.'18

It must also be taken into consideration "that literary types play a far
greater role in the writings of an ancient people than they do today and that
whereas in modern literature the personality of the writer is everything, or
appears to be everything, in those days it was kept in restraint in a way
which almost surprises us.19

Koch correctly says that literary types are not static but changing
constantly: 'Some are forgotten and fall into disuse and others take their
place. The changes not only affect their actual existence, their basic
construction, linguistic forms, introductions and conclusions, but the
extent of their self-sufficiency also. One literary type can be united with
another or can be taken up into another...Therefore, whether in speech or
in writing, there are component literary types, which buildup into complex
literary types. Formulas in particular, which are the smallest units of
speech, are nearly always linked to or are part of greater literary types.'20

Logically, Koch concludes: "Each exegesis must therefore not only
define the literary type, but also discover whether this literary type is
associated with other, perhaps complex, literary types.'21

As mentioned earlier, setting in life is the key for understanding the
form-critical methods. Koch says, "Each literary type corresponds to a
setting in life (Sitz im Leben), as Gunkel termed it. The regulations and
needs of a particular sphere of existence determine and form the respective
manners of speech and writing, just as in reverse the customary linguistic
forms help to determine the face of a particular way of life. Therefore it is
no indication of an excessive phantasy in the mind of a nation if its literature
consists of innumerable types and formulas intermingled with one another,
but it is merely an expression of the complexity of human accomplishment.
Analysis of literary types, or the form-critical method, rests on the
assumption that each individual literary type as long as it preserves its own
vitality, has a particular content and particular forms of expression, and
that these two are closely connected'.”22

A setting in life comprehends a number of literary types, each
meeting a particular function. Koch states: "Hence a setting in life compre-
hends a number of literary types, in near or distant relationship to each
other, each fulfilling a particular function. A setting in life is a social
occurence, the result of customs prevailing in one particular culture at one

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