താൾ:13E3287.pdf/29

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ഈ താളിൽ തെറ്റുതിരുത്തൽ വായന നടന്നിരിക്കുന്നു


As mentioned before Schreiner sees the main problem in, 'the
integration of the synchronic and the diachronic procedure...since dia-
chrony does no justice to the Indian understanding of tradition and
synchrony does no justice to the awarness of methods and problems in
philological Indology.12 The reason for this, Schreiner says, is that the
results of the form-critical method developed in the Old Testament
exegesis do not always completely fit in; eg, with the Purana exegesis,
because the Indian understanding of tradition is different from the Hebrew
understanding of tradition. Schreiner sees the problems but does not take
into account that most of Old Testament texts go back to an oral tradition
which is similar to and therefore comparable with the Indian tradition.
Koch's opinion that the synchronic procedure, which means the form-
critical method, is superior to the diachronic procedure, which is the
literary-critical method, is also valid for old Indian texts, eg, the Puranas.

Compared to the literary-critical method the main advantage of the
form-critical method is that not only does it give the possibility of
interpreting the text concerning its original setting, but that it also gives a
holistic view. Interpreting the Deluge Story according to the form-critical
method Klaus Koch introduces his essay thus:

The encounter of the world-religions is a phenomenon with
which, at the end of our 20th century, every kind of theology must be
concerned. In past centuries people lived together in closed societies.
Of course there was an exchange of material goods among different
societies, but scarcely a mental or even a religious exchange. So
every religion could consider the other one as wrong or even as a lie,
a work of evil spirits; only one's own religion contained truth and
salvation. This was the attitude of former times. Nowadays, the
increasing moving of thousands of people from one place to another
brings the adherents of different religions in closer contact than at any
former time. Increasing trade connections among the nations com-
bined with scientific exchange are raising new question(s) regarding
the truth of religion in general and the truth of specific religions. Con-
siderations as to whether there is a relationship among the many
religions have gained more than a theoretical significance. It be-
comes also important in view of the immense ethical tasks with
which the whole humankind is confronted today.”13

Two aspects-the original setting and the holistic pattern-have to
be taken into account whenever we speak of the form-critical method. This
statement opens the possibilities of comparing all kinds of literature
without losing the original meaning and identity of a text. Therefore it is
logical that comparative linguistics and comparative science of epics are
getting more and more popular. In his essay Brothers, Friends, and
Charioteers: Parallel Episodes in the Irish and Indian Epics, Alf Hiltebe-

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